Analyzing Scope Creep

family reunion

 When family members are scattered all over the country and even the world, family reunions are playing an important role in bringing everyone together in one place. Family reunion give families a chance to reconnect and make new memories. In most families as in mine, individual members need to fly or drive long distances to be together, and planning a gathering like this can be a challenge. With that said I was tasked with planning our very first family reunion for about 30 of my nearest and dearest relatives.  I went head first into the project with no knowledge of the logistical challenges I was about to face.

I have learned quickly that coordinating a reunion is a daunting task, but there are several things I could done differently. I began with emails and Facebook notifications to each family members, asking them to reserve the date.  I later followed up with some choices of beaches closest to my hometown. I thought it would make sense to stay close to home since I was in charge of planning the reunion. Then everything changed, when suggestions stated pouring in.  Everyone had a unique idea for activities, destination, food, accommodation, and even date changes.  I ended spending more time than I planned making changes to accommodate everyone. Some people couldn’t afford the hotel choices, some wanted to rent houses so that we could be together, and others couldn’t stay for the duration.  We ended up two houses at the beach, but with that came more challenges since most people were from out of town. So now I was task with securing all the necessities needed to for the beach, such as beach chairs, towels, food, and transportations if we wanted to leave the house.  The project kept getting bigger and bigger and more expensive for me.  I believe I ended up spending more money than any other member just to pull it off.

As the coordinator, I should have stayed in charge and coordinated all the dates and venues. The project needed extensive planning that include all stakeholders input. I should have allowed at least six months to a year to plan the reunion. Planning task should include researching a destination, booking accommodations, collecting and managing fund, keeping the group informed and planning activities.  A planning committee should have been in place to split the duties. We needed to survey the whole family to help make a few basic decisions, such as how far is everyone willing to ravel, and how much will they be able to spend. Overall, what I would do differently is plan and delegate responsibilities.

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Estimating Costs and Allocating Resources: Helpful Resources

estimating cost

One resource that I found very helpful is the MS Project software that could be used to easily enter each task, its duration and the associated resources for any project. This Project management software enables Project Team Members to manage tasks, collaborate, and submit time sheets, and flag issues and risks. It makes project management easy and engaging for Project Managers, by enabling them to analyze resources, budgets and timelines. Also, Project managers can easily measure progress and anticipate resource needs with detailed and easily customizable out-of-the box reports (project pro).

The MS project program has many helpful website such as the one found an This site provides tips and tricks that could help when creating a project schedule. If I can use it, then that says it all. The fact is MS project comes with a hefty fee, but there are many free tools out there that could be used to estimate costs and durations; this article found at management-tracking-templates/ provides information on free alternatives to MS project like using Excel sheets to develop cost estimates. The author suggests the use of the templates in Excel which is available through MS Office and is commonly used on various computers.

I also found a good project management website called Bright Hub. It outlines the project management process and defines the 8 steps in the project management process to include diagrams and charts. The site explains the critical path method and Gantt charts. They really do a good job breaking down the various charting methods used a project process. The Bright Hub website offers a wealth of knowledge and links for a budget template. The site host full project page, a monthly page, and a task project budget page. The templates appear to be basic and easy to use. They also give a link that discusses the goal of a project budget, what should be included, and an example of a project management budget.  This information gives a very good overview and a baseline of where to get started which I think will benefit any newcomer to project management (Bright Hub)


Project Pro for Office 365. Retrieved from

Brighthub PM. Retrieved from

Brown, S. (2011). Examples of a project management budget. Retrieved February 3, 2011, from

Levine, R. (2010). Use our excel project template to simplify your life. Retrieved February 2, 2011, from

Rosenhead, R. (2010). Project Management. Retrieved February 3, 2011, from



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The Art of Effective Communication


“The Art of Effective Communication,” observing a piece of communication in three different modalities. We are constantly sending  messages, to include the ones we to intend to send, the ones we actually send, the message as the receiver  interprets it; the response of the receiver based on what he or she heard; and our reaction to the exchange of words, meaning and interpretation” (Franck & McCastskill, n.d., p. 1). After observing three communication examples, my reaction and interpretations of the messages are as followed:


The email was clear and relayed Jane’s message precisely. Jane needed Mark’s data to complete her report by a certain deadline. Her email began with a clear purpose that stated the situation (Dr. Stolovitch (Laureate Education, Inc., n.d.).  Jane showed concern and understanding when she addressed Marks busy work schedule. The email created more cognitive load, because it was hard to read and time-consuming.  I did not make any connection to the writer and felt like this could have one of many request Mark receives on a daily basis. The lack of voice and tone made it difficult to form an emotional connection or concern for what the words were saying.


The voicemail improved my comprehension of the message compared to the email version. The message included a formal tone which created a sense of urgency to Jane’s request. (Laureate Education, Inc., n.d.). I focused more on how Jane felt about not having the data she needed to complete her work.  Jane seemed frustrated and wanted Mark to understand the importance of her receiving his data to complete her report, while trying to show her appreciation for the work he is doing. The voicemail lacks nonverbal cues, so I tended focus on every word being said and the tone of the voice that is being used.

Face to face

In this situation Jane’s face-to-face conversation with Mark was more informal and laid back. There was no sense of urgency to her request.  Her poise gave the impression that her and Mark were friends and that the deadline was not as urgent as in the other scenarios.

I believe the tone and the approach influenced my interpretation of each modality. I believe face-to-face communication could eliminate misinterpretation, because it allows the receiver to ask questions to clarify misunderstanding immediately. However, the face-to-face scenario portrayed is not ideal in a professional environment. Stolovitch states that written communication should include five things (Laureate Education, Inc., n.d.). 1. Begin with a clear purpose, 2. State the situation, 3. Include possible solutions, 4. Specify the form that the response is required to take, 5. Keep the tone of all communications business friendly and respectful, and the email accomplished that. “Effective communicators encode their messages with their intended audience in mind as well as the communication channel” (Skillsyouneed, 2014). “This involves an appropriate use of language, conveying the information simply and clearly, anticipating and eliminating likely causes of confusion and misunderstanding, and knowing the receivers’ experience in decoding other similar communications.  Successful encoding of messages is a vital skill in effective communication” (Skillsyouneed, 2014).


ranck & McCastskill, (n.d.). Effective communication. Retrieved from

Laureate Education, Inc. (Producer). (n.d.). Communicating with Stakeholders. [Video webcast]. Retrieved from:

What is Communication (2014).  Retrieved from SkillsYourNeed (blog post)

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Project Post-Mortem



A couple years ago, as a lead special education teacher, I was ask to develop training on the intervention process for the entire teaching staff. Our administrator and the special education team members realized that the general education teacher lacked an understanding of the intervention process and how it leads to eligibility and possibly special education services.  Teacher needed to understand that students that are under performing in the classroom and are referred for intervention are not guaranteed eligible for special education services.  Teacher did not understand that it was their responsibility to deliver differentiated tier one instruction with fidelity, while collecting data to show the lack of progress prior to referral. Once a referral was make they thought that meant automatic special education services.

I remember thinking this would easy and that the one week deadline was plenty of time complete the work. I considered myself an expert in the area and that I had all the information they needed to know. I began the project with a brief meeting with the special education team of three teachers, and decided that we would deliver the training together in one day during each grade level planning. We decided to use information from the intervention and special education manual. We also decided to use a projected PowerPoint to deliver the training.  I volunteered to put the PowerPoint together and we agreed to spit the slides evenly for delivery. I worked on the power-point on my personal computer at home and included a video to show an example of an ineffective intervention meeting. Graphics and charts, music and quotes were included.  Whew! I was pretty proud of the finished deliverable.  The night before training the PowerPoint was sent out to the team for final approval and all was well. We were confident.

Learner Objectives: teacher will learn…

  • The intervention and eligibility process from start to finish
  • How to complete forms
  • Who to contact for help
  • What is their responsibility through the process and in the classroom
  • What is the special education teachers’ responsibility throughout the process and in the classroom
  • What is the administrators responsibilities

Project Objectives: deliver training to…

  • Improve teachers’ understanding of the intervention and eligibility process
  • Help teacher understand their role and responsibilities before referral
  • Help teachers understand their role through the process
  • Help teacher learn the forms and navigate their way throughout the process

Training day

The conference room was setup with a projector. I arrived early and attached my laptop to the projector. Then the problems began.  The projector was not compatible with the laptop, so I scrambled to move the PowerPoint to another school computer, but lost some of the formatting and graphics. Apparently Windows 8 and 7 are not so compatible after all. The frustration could have been avoided with a test run before training day.  During the first two groups, things were a little shaky.  As we took turns to deliver our part of the the slides we realized that we needed to practice the presentation together, and we discovered how much more information the teachers needed based on their questions. Teachers needed more information than we anticipated.  We found that we were unprepared for some of the questions and needed some help from administration to answer them.

What went well

The teachers were unaware of the difficulties and glitches.  They seemed to enjoy the presentation and were engage throughout the whole process. The presentation sparked discussions and many questions.  The PowerPoint was uploaded to a shared file for later use and for on- going training. Administration was satisfied with the training and wanted to repeat yearly for new teacher. The projects was successful because the content was relevant, and information was generated from credible sources. There was no cost and the project was delivered on time.

Improving the Project

Although the turnaround time was limited, the project would have benefited from a needs analysis (project management phase 1). Interviews with the teachers and administration would have given us a better idea of additional information that might be needed and prepare us to address questions. A project plan (Phase 2) might have alerted us of problems that could occur and assist us in delineating and communicating team members’ roles and responsibilities clearly. Certainly phase 5, a test of the facilities and equipment would have assured the proper function of the laptop and the projector on training day. Lastly, project evaluation data would have been beneficial for improvement for future training (Greer, M. (2010).


Greer, M. (2010). The Project Management Minimalist: Just Enough PM to Rock Your Projects!  Retrieved from

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Perceptions of distance learning in the future

Distance Learning perceptions in the future

Distance education is now a common component in most higher education institution today. It has changed from an anomaly to what is expected of all educational institutions.  Colleges and university are realizing the profitability of offering courses to students who otherwise would not have access to the programs offered traditionally. Experts in the past have predicted that students attending classes at prearranged times and locations will disappear (Blustain, Goldstein, and Lozier 1999 and Drucker 1997), and I believe this trend will continue in the future. According to George Seimens, online learning continues to gain acceptance because more people come to the online environment with the experience of communicating online, new tools are becoming available and learners are more comfortable with them. I believe the small sample of respondents from our discussion question this week represent an overall perception of online learning and a good predictor of where it is going in the future.

Most people believe that online learning is on the rise.  They have seen an increase in the amount online training offered in the workplace and are finding that more of their colleagues now have online master’s degrees.  George Seimens in our video resource this week, also stated that there is a growing acceptance for online learning, due to the improvements in technology and the increased contributions from experts around the world.  As technology improves, educational models will move in the same direction, and perceptions will continue to change along with it. However, I do agree that universities are not completely on board or are not making online learning a priority when promoting their programs.  George Siemen, believed that when Universities, Government and businesses begin working together the gap will be bridged for online learning. According to Simonson, Smaldino, Albright, & Zvacek, students of all ages are participating in distance education. Technology has evolved to allow a multitude of resources that are now available to learners (2012). These resources allow students to be actively involved in their own distance learning experiences.

Distance learning provides many opportunities for learners to gain knowledge in new and engaging ways. Instructional designers can design instruction with equivalent outcomes, through virtual distance learning experiences without losing the autonomy of the face-to-face course. Designers should use the tools available to them to create instruction that engages the learners and offer them the opportunity to gain knowledge in a meaningful way. When developing the instruction for the distance learners, designers must consider age, prior experience, and attitudes toward learning, abilities, prior knowledge, personal responsibilities and learning styles (Simonson, Smaldino, Albright, & Zvacek, 2012). The instructional design should be established on solid research, concrete learning theories and distance learning theories in order to design the best educational experiences. If instructional designers continue to develop effective instruction, then perceptions will continue to move in a positive direction.

As an instructional designer, I plan to change perception of online learning, by building effective instruction based on the foundation of the learning theories (Simonson, Smaldino, Albright, & Zvacek, 2012). I will seek out and use cutting edge tools to address the multitude of learning abilities (Beldarrain, 2006). My designs will incorporate simulations, interactivity and authentic learning applications to create positive learning experiences.  These activities will allow students to create connections with prior learning experiences, construct new knowledge, demonstrate mastery and show creative problem solving abilities (Beldarrain, 2006). I believe the knowledge I gained in this course have given me the foundation to achieve these goals.


Beldarrain, Y. (2006 August). Distance education trends: Integrating new technologies to foster student interaction and collaboration. 27(2). p. 139-153. Retrieved from Academic Research Complete Database.

Blustain, Harvey, Philip Goldstein, and Gregory Lozier 1999. “Assessing the New Competitive Landscape,” in Dancing with the Devil, Editors: Richard N. Katz and Associates, Jossey-Bass Publishers, San Francisco.

Gambescia, S., & Paolucci, R. (2009). Academic fidelity and integrity as attributes of university online degree program offerings. Online Journal of Distance Learning Administration,

George Siemens. The future of distance education [Video file]. Retrieved from              https://class.waldenu.e

Laureate Education, Inc. (Producer). (n.d.). The future of distance learning” [Video]. Retrieved from Laureatte Education, (n.d.)

Simonson, M., Smaldino, S., Albright, M., & Zvacek, S. (2012). Teaching and learning at a distance: Foundations of distance education (5th ed.) Boston, MA: Pearson.

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A facilitator’s Guide to converting a face-to-face course to blended course


Converting a traditional face-to-face course to a blended learning environment may seem as simple as transferring the documents used in the original course to an online platform.  The truth is, distance learning instructional strategies and methods are quite different from the traditional face-to-face classroom environment. Traditional courses cannot just be copied and pasted into an online learning format, because the “focus of the instruction shifts to visual presentations to engage learners” (Simonson, Smaldino, Albright& Zvacek, 2012, p.153). Prior to shifting to a blended learning course, it is important to understand the definition of distance education and the details involved in developing instruction in an online environment.  Keegan’s Theory of Equivalency, warned that the learning experiences in distance learning should not be identical to the face-to-face classroom, but should be equivalent (Simonson, Smaldino, Albright, & Zvacek, 2012).  There are many definitions for distance learning that continue to evolve with the evolution of technology. However, a blended or hybrid course has been defined as a course that is typically between 30% – 79% of the content being facilitated online (Simonson, Smaldino, Albright, & Zvacek, 2012). In this environment, it is critical to maintain clear communication between the facilitator and students in a community where the learners are responsible for their own learning, based on their own experiences (Mergel, 1998). This guide was designed to facilitate the transition from a face-to-face course to an effective blended learning environment

click here to view Guide: Facilitator’s Guide





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The Impact of Open Source

Open Yale Courses: A free open website offering a number of introductory courses taught by Yale University professors.


I chose one of the open Yale course, titled, Africa American History; from emancipation to present.  Clearly the university did not utilize a learning management system for delivery, instead the course was designed on a webpage with no clear outline, except for four tabs at the top of the page; syllabus, sessions, survey, and buy books. Simonson 2012, proposed that distance delivered courses often do not utilize class sessions, and further suggest that the topic should be fundamental building blocks for instruction.  Topics should be organized in modules that are further organized into units. It was obvious that this course was not carefully pre-planned and designed for a distance learning environment. There were no clear directions as to where to go next, so I choose to look at the syllabus, which was limited with no defined expectation or requirements on a weekly bases. “Instructors of online courses must make the course organization, calendar, activities, and expectations as clear as possible” (Simonson, et al, 2012).

I had no idea why I would need to learn the information offered in this course except for an interest in the topic. Detailed assignment instructions are important and should include a grading scheme that can be easily located by the student.   As I continued through the course I realized that the course was a direct transfer of the face-to-face lectures to an online delivery. Simonson, 2012, suggested that one of the fundamentals of teaching online is to avoid dumping face-to-face courses onto the web. He further stated that, “The term shovel ware has evolved to describe this practice: shovel the course onto the web and say you are teaching online.” “Online activities for students should have specific pedagogical or course management purposes.” Simonson, et al, 2012.

Next I choose the sessions’ tab, which was merely a list of 25 lectures that were delivered in a classroom setting by the instructor. The designers did not implement course activities to maximize active learning. Each sessions were delivered in the same way, via prerecorded videos. However, the lecture pages did offer an overview with reading assignments. At the bottom of the page students could also choose html format or an mp3 audio versions of the lectures. Students are given a reading assignment for each lecture session and are allowed to move to next session or previous via links at the top of the page. There were no opportunities to interact with the instructor of other students in the class. Ross and Kemp (2004) suggest that learners need to understand the instructor’s intent when participating in any learning environment.  When they understand the intent or reason why they are participating in the instruction or activity they are better able to use that experience to explore their own learning.  Using a course management system would enable the instructor of this conventional face-to-face course to provide learning resources and conduct course-related activities, such as discussion and testing, outside of the classroom setting.

The designers or instructor for this course needed to take the time to conduct strategic planning and organize the learning experience to effectively deliver instruction is an online environment. They needed to move from the traditional approach to a more effective learning approach that is focused on student learning and less on delivery. Well-designed courses provide students with engaging learning experiences.


Open Yale Courses: A free open website offering a number of introductory courses taught by Yale University professors.

Simonson, M., Smaldino, S., Albright, M., & Zvacek, S. (2012). Teaching and learning at a distance: Foundations of distance education (5th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson Education, Inc.

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Asynchronous Training senario

In an effort to improve its poor safety record, a bio-diesel manufacturing plant needs a series of safety training modules. These stand-alone modules must illustrate best practices on how to safely operate the many pieces of heavy machinery on the plant floor. The modules should involve step-by-step processes and the method of delivery needs to be available to all shifts at the plant. As well, the shift supervisors want to be sure the employees are engaged and can demonstrate their learning from the modules.

An asynchronous learning environment is ideal for this scenario, since the employees are in different locations and are unable to meet at the same time and place. Simonson, Smaldino, Albright, & Zvack indicated that “online activities for students should have specific pedagogical or course management purposes” (p. 248). The training should focus on specific tasks and provide authentic learning experiences within the course. Simonson, Smaldino, Albright & Zvack. further stated that, “learning experiences should be provided to each learner whether local or distant, and the expectation should be that the equivalent outcomes, rather than identical, should be expected of each learner” (2012, p. 52). The abundant availability of Web 2.0 tools provide the instructional designer the cutting edge technology needed to create instruction that is equivalent in learning outcomes.

Technology Solutions:     appropriatetech

Asynchronous learning is a student-centered teaching method that uses online learning resources to facilitate information sharing outside the constraints of time and place among a network of people Simonson, et. al., 2012).  Asynchronous learning is based on constructivist theory, a student-centered approach that emphasizes the importance of peer-to-peer interactions (Simonson, et. al., 2012).  This approach combines self-study with asynchronous interactions to promote learning in this scenario where stand alone modules are required. This combined network of learners and the electronic network in which they will communicate is clearly an asynchronous learning network.

There are many online learning resources available to support asynchronous learning. One of the two distant learning technologies that would provide the best solution for a series of safety training modules is a Learning Management System called Latitude Learning.  This tool has been developed to support online interaction, allowing users to organize discussions between the participants and their supervisors, post and reply to messages, and most importantly upload and access multimedia (Streaming audio and/or video and narrated slide shows) that could demonstrate step by step processes. The LMS allows the designer to the opportunity to develop training programs which consist of certifications and curricula with start and end date or even open-ended. Additional the program allows multiple training that can be activated at one time. Within this learning platform the designer a can define technical skills profile for safety competency levels and learners must exceed a specified performance level to prove mastery. Managers can manually assign training goals to learners using the curriculum functionality available. For example, the manager can review the competences of their workers and assign safety master curriculum to select employees (Latitude website). Integrated software learning systems can be uploaded to deliver instructional content. The effective delivery of that content can be measured, monitored, and maintained with an array of assessment and management tools that may also be part of these systems.


Another distance learning technology tool that would deepen and create a more meaningful learning experience for the workers is an integrated blog called “EduBlog”. EduBlog was created for educational purposes. It supports student and teacher learning by facilitating reflection, questioning among each other, collaboration, and by providing contexts for engaging in higher-order thinking. As opposed to a boring online modules or even video tutorials, this integrated leaning tool is highly interactive and engaging.  It would allow the supervisors the opportunity to provide feedback as to progress and grasp of the subject matter.  Students like to have all the course materials available at all times so they can print and read or re-read the material at any time. These tools will deliver the content in this course in a variety of ways to help students retain the material, through bulletin board discussions,, integrate video and/or audio clips along with the printed notes to emphasize important content.

Primrose school is one of the nation’s leader in providing child care experiences in more than 260 schools across 17 states.  Clearly any successful learning solution would be primarily require distance learning because of the geographical challenges.  The company needed ongoing professional development for teachers, staff and affiliates. Achieving these goals required a scalable an adaptive approach in order to improve the company’s training capacity. Primrose Schools chose Latitude Learning for its specific ability to deliver online learning strategies and their exceptional client reputation and robust product features.  The company elected a technology based approach and partnered with Latitude Learning to launch a customized LMS portal with the capacity for e-Learning, instructor- lead and CD-ROM training.  The LMS includes virtual classroom support for up to 100 users at the same time.  The customized Primrose Schools LMS contains learning content delivered through multiple channels including instructor-lead webinars, virtual classrooms, and on-demand training material (Primrose case study). They also currently use the Latitude LMS to schedule various training courses. This method has simplified enrollment and allowed administrators to automatically generate rosters to verify attendance. Those taking training are able to receive credit for course attendance (Primrose School case study).

By developing a customized LMS implementation which addressed their specific training needs, Primrose Schools has been equipped with the tools for ongoing training success. They are now capable of providing high quality learning experiences. Some of the benefits enjoyed by Primrose Schools, its staff and Franchise Owners included the ability to track student progress and course completion, higher rates of user adoption, and high user satisfaction scores for training content and delivery (Primrose School case study)

Edublog is popular among teachers, specifically high school.  Paul an English teacher uses Edublog as an English class website. Paul feels that EduBlog is importance as a learning tool because his students grew in leaps and bounds each month since he started its use. Each of Paul’s students have their own blog so that they may publish work and receive valuable feedback from peers and others that belong to the blog community. He believes that Edublogs allowed his students to be more careful and deliberate when writing essays and smaller assignment.  They tend to take better care of their work because they are more considerate of unknown audience and it is not the same old routine between themselves and a single reader, the teacher (Paul Turtola blog post).


Latitude Learning Management System. Retrieved from:

Primrose Schools LMS Case Study. Retrieved from

Paul Turtola – Joseph A. Foran HSPRetrieved from:

Simonson, M., Smaldino, S., Albright, M., & Zvack, S. (2012). Teaching and learning at a distance: Foundations of distance education (5th ed.) Boston, MA: Pearson.



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Defining Distance Learning

distant learning

Distant learning has certainly come a long way, from its early beginning as correspondence courses to what we now know as e-learning. The history of distance learning dates back to 1833 when European newspapers offered civil service examination courses through mail correspondence (Laureate Education Inc., n.d.). Fifty-six years after the first distance education was offered in Europe, the University of Chicago initiated the first university course to be taken by mail (Laureate Education Inc., n.d.).  The demand for distant learning has also increased two fold since its inception.  Adult learners seem to be the driving force in the evolution and increased demand for distance learning.  If we look at corporations and educational institutions today, we can’t help but notice the rapid expansion in the market for distance education. I believe the expansion is fueled by the desire for lifelong learning among adults and the growth in student populations throughout the world.

Despite distance learning long history, the definition of the term is still evolving.  I believe the definition changed when computers were introduced, and continues to change with the rapid advancement of technology.  Correspondence courses were considered distant learning, because learning occurred where the learner is absent from the institution or educational site. I must admit that prior to my enrollment in a University online course, my understanding and definition was limited to a course taken online, with no consideration for the design, environment, tools and techniques involved. My definition would have been: Learning that take place at a distance from the traditional educational institution and the instructor. The learning would occur online with some communication and interaction with the instructor and classmates.  The course would utilize the computer, to enable the instructor and learner who are separated by distance to communicate synchronously (real time) or asynchronously (delayed).

Today distant learners can now access learning opportunities at anytime, anyplace, and at any pace that suits their individual needs, lifestyle and learning preference.  As a student at Walden University, my current definition of distance education is a method of delivering instruction using a variety of communication technological tools to transfer information to the learner.  These tools enable the instructor to assign group project, collect assignment, offer opportunities for interaction between students and teacher in real time or delayed via video feed, blogs wiki, social media and much more.

My definition of distance learning has evolved even further, after reviewing this week’s resources and discussion. I have learned that Distance education must be institutionally based. My new definition is now: An institution based, formal education in which a learning group is separated geographically.  The course utilizes a learning management system with embedded interactive technology to submit and collect assignments. Instructor and student interaction is encouraged through discussion boards and blogs.

According to this week’s resources, it has been argued that distant education has the potential to transform or replace traditional institutions and ultimately lead to the reduction of educational quality.  As a current distant learner, I can attest to the fact that distant education has offered me a rich alternative to the traditional residential institution.  Distant education has given me access to a challenging learning environment with real world application, that I would otherwise missed due to my currents work/life situation. “Distance education has evolved for almost 200 years and will continue to progress in meeting the needs of societies both in the United States and abroad” (Tracey and Richey, 2005, p. 21). According to Dr.  Simonson, distant learning will never replace the traditional institution, and I believe that it poses no threat to our current educational institutions, but will continue to work alongside it to broaden the population of students with access to an education.

My vision for distant learning is to see more movement in the direction of K-12 education.  Such a development can offer a radical new direction for Instructional Designer, teachers and learners.  This could create a whole new world of flexibility and open learning methods as well as modified and specially created learning resources that could serve students when they are away from school.

Distance Learning MindMap:





Laureate Education, Inc. (Producer). Distance learning timeline continuum. Retrieved from:

Simonson, M., Smaldino, S., Albright, M., & Zvacek, S. (2012). Teaching and learning at a distance: Foundations of distance education (5th ed.) Boston, MA: Pearson.

Tracey, M., & Richey, R. (2005). The evolution of distance education. Distance Learning, 2(6), 17–21. Education Research Complete database.





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The thing I found the most striking is the complexity of the brain and the processes that take place to facilitate learning. I especially found the comparison between the computer and the human brain interesting. Unlike the computer the human brain will recall a best friend’s phone number by bringing to mind the friend’s face, a pleasant conversation that occurred, and the title of the movie that the two might be going to see. While computer memories are discrete and informationally simple, human memories are tangled together and informationally complex. I learned that there are several theories and countless research done on how we learn. Over time the theories have been extensively reviewed and analyzed, but continue to be useful tools in understanding human learning.  Surprisingly, none of these theories are conclusive and there are many differences in opinion among them.  After extensive research, I have concluded that they are not all completely correct but there are underlying truths in each.  I was intrigued by the fact I can affect my own learning by knowing how to learn or thinking how to think. I found it interesting that an understanding of metacognition creates an awareness of ones strengths and weaknesses, the task hand, and the available strategies that can be utilized to enhance learning.  Flavell defined metacognition as knowledge about cognition and control of cognition. The knowledge component encompasses what one knows about cognition, including knowledge about oneself as a learner, about aspects of the task at hand, and about strategies needed to carry out the task effectively. The control component encompasses the strategies one uses to make cognitive progress, such as planning how to approach a task, evaluating progress as the task is being completed, and changing tactics if difficulties arise Flavell, J. H. (1976).

Technology and modern advancements have changed the way we learn over the years. Instructors are encouraged to learn how information processing occurs within the brain. Cognitivism is the belief that learning is a complex information processing system, and that it occurs internally and through social interaction. I think it is impossible to ever truly understand what goes on in the brain due to its complexity and diversity.   However, I believe that all the theories presented in this class will always play a relevant role in the learning process. 

Exposure to the Learning theories and styles have deepened my understanding of my own learning process in many way. After developing my own mind map I realized that I have created a network for learning that supports the idea that learning and knowledge include diverse connections between humans and technology. I learned that my learning process fall within the connectivist theory.  Connectivism is a learning theory, in which knowledge exists outside of the learner, and the learner makes connections between information to build knowledge. The connections that learners make help them create their own learning network. Through this connected web, learners are able to stay up-to-date with content as it changes (Siemens, 2005). Social-networking tools play a vital role in my learning process. Internet communication such as blogs and podcasts are just a few of the sources that offer me radically new ways to research, create, and learn new information. The RSS feeds on my blog page is a powerful toll that I now use to gain and learn new information.  With these resource I have built a learning network that is constantly growing.

 In the past I struggled to retain information read in text books, I didn’t memorize information well and had trouble committing new information to long term memory. I utilized various strategies, such as note-taking and using mnemonic devices, to help me learn the information long enough to take the test. I later realized that I need to hear it experience and apply it to learn it. This makes me a visual and auditory learner. An awareness of my learning style has given the knowledge needed to analyze the task at hand and to choose the appropriate strategies to enhance my learning.  When leaning theories, styles, technology and motivation are connected, they ignite the kind of learning that is meaningful, relevant and engaging.  It is imperative that instructional designers consider them when designing courses for all learners. 

This course has given me the foundation needed to become a successful instructional Designer. Without a foundation or an understanding of the underlying premise of instructional design, leaning cannot be achieved successfully.  The best techniques with all the bells and whistles are not enough without a deep understanding of the various learning theories, the audience’s learning styles and what motivates them. In my quest to provide the highest quality of instruction, it will be extremely important to understand how my audience learn. I will seek out different strategies to teach different concepts.  I will make a conscious effort to understand and consider students learning styles to find solutions for training issues and create successful courses.



Flavell, J. H. (1976). Metacognitive aspects of problem solving. In L. B. Resnick (Ed.), The nature of intelligence (pp. 231–235). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum

Armstrong, T. (2000). Multiple intelligences in the classroom (2nd ed.). Alexandra, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development

Ertmer, P. A., & Newby, T. J. (1993). Behaviorism, cognitivism, constructivism: Comparing critical features from an

Siemens, G. (2005, January). Connectivism: A learning theory for the digital age. International Journal of Instructional Technology & Distance Learning, Retrieved November 03, 2008, from

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